Platform movement and posture are essential elements of nonverbal communication. Like gestures, they should look and feel natural to reinforce the message and not distract. The stance and movement of the body involve the total person, mentally and physically. Thoughts and feelings can be expressed in movements and gestures. These two rules should be remembered when on the platform: move when there is reason to move and stand still when there is no reason to move.
One of my (Rhonda) doctoral professors roamed back and forth in front of the classroom without making any eye contact with the students during his lectures. He paced aimlessly in front of the class as he taught. As a project in a behavioral modification course, several students attempted to alter his distracting behavior. Students on the right side of the class paid careful attention to the professor as he paced—looking interested, nodding heads, taking notes, and asking questions. Students on the left side of the classroom ignored the professor as he taught—disinterested yawns, hands on desks, no notes, and no questions. Within a few minutes, the professor only paced back and forth on the right side of the room. While his pacing behavior was modified, his poor eye contact remained unchanged. I learned the impact of the speaker’s body movement and positions by observing a negative model as a student.
Posture is noticed immediately, and opinions are made about a speaker based on stance and carriage. Posture is the position of a person’s body when standing or sitting. Many different organs, muscles, and nerves in the body are used to stand. While physical conditions may inhibit good posture, most people can control posture with conscious actions. A public speaker needs good posture to support vocal projection, to display confidence, and to enhance movement.
In No Sweat Public Speaking, Fred Miller suggests four ways that posture helps communicate a message. (1) Good, straight posture indicates leadership and confidence. (2) Leaning forward toward the audience shows concern and care. (3) Slouching the body conveys disinterest and boredom. (4) Hunched shoulders suggest low self-esteem and lack of confidence. Posture is more important than many speakers realize. Evaluate posture in a mirror or on a videotape. Remember to stand up, then speak up!
There are some cardinal rules about posture and movement that a good speaker should follow. Try not to break the following posture principles:
- Do not fidget with your hands or fingers.
- Do not jingle change or keys in your pockets.
- Do not cross your hands in front of your body (“fig–leaf stance”) or behind your body.
- Do not rock on your heels or toes.
- Do not sway back and forth.
- Do not lean on the podium.
- Do not cross your arms across chest.
- Do not look down for too long.
- Do not bob or shake your head too much.
- Do not be stiff or tense.
Zig Ziglar was a dynamic public speaker and powerful Christian communicator. Though small in physical stature, he had a “bigger than life” presence on the stage. He projected energy and enthusiasm as he moved confidently around the stage. His speech content was filled with knowledge and wisdom, and his delivery style was passionate, purposeful, and powerful. His sales experience and personal faith provided the foundational principles for his speaking and writing. A master of verbal and nonverbal communication, Ziglar said it this way: “Your attitude, not your aptitude, will determine your altitude.” Stand up and speak out like Zig Ziglar did for many years.
Correct posture is an important part of nonverbal communication in public speaking. Practice these principles and avoid these pitfalls.
- Walk deliberately to the stage; avoid rushing onto the platform.
- Stand upright keeping the body core tight; avoid tension or tightness.
- Place feet firmly on the ground and slightly apart (about shoulder width); avoid stiff legs and locked knees.
- Face the audience directly; avoid turning the body away.
- Position body behind podium with hands to the side or resting on lectern; avoid gripping the podium.
- Hold head and chin up; avoid looking down.
- Square shoulders with the audience; avoiding drooping shoulders.
- Keep chest up and stomach in; avoid tightening abdominal muscles.
- Relax the body; avoid tension and stiffness.
- Breathe deeply to relax; avoid short, shallow breaths.
- Pause to look at the audience; avoid rushing into the speech.
- Watch the posture of others speakers; avoid awkward imitation of others.
Improved posture adds strength and authority to a spoken message.
Dale Carnegie, known as the father of modern public speaking, said: “A person under the influence of his feelings projects the real self, acting naturally and spontaneously. A speaker who is interested will usually be interesting.”
When your name is called and you walk to the stage…
rise up slowly,
stand up erectly,
walk out boldly,
speak out confidently.
Good posture makes a good impression on the audience and gives good support to the speaker. Outstanding public speakers develop a platform posture to reflect their attitudes and gain the audience’s attention. Body posture can reduce nervous energy and relieve physical tension. As you speak, make your body talk.
The eyes and face of a speaker convey mood, emotions, and character. Both interpersonal conversation and public speaking use eye contact and facial expression to amplify meaning and clarify feelings. Lack of eye contact and inconsistent facial expression can actually confuse the intended message. Poor eye contact can lead to suspicion, and limited facial expression can imply lack of interest. Effective communicators must intentionally develop skills to communicate with the eyes and face.
The word “countenance” means the outward expression of a person’s inner being. The inward character of a person is reflected outwardly through the eyes and face. The Bible often uses the word “countenance” to describe the appearance of God and the people of God. God asked Moses to tell Aaron and his sons that He would “lift up His countenance upon them and give them peace” (Num 6:26). Samson’s once-barren mother was told by an angel that she would give birth to a son. She told her husband that she had encountered a man whose “countenance was like an angel of God” (Jdg 13:6). David was described as a youth with a “ruddy, fair countenance” (1 Sam 16:12; 17:42).
The Psalms and Proverbs often contrast the happy or joyful countenance of one who follows God with the sad or sorrowful countenance of one who focuses on self (Psa 43:5; 89:15; 90:8; Prov 16:15; and 25:23). For example, in Proverbs 15:13 (KJV) we read, “A merry heart maketh a cheerful countenance: but by sorrow of the heart the spirit is broken.” The prophets encountered God and spoke of His countenance also. Daniel’s countenance changed when his dream was interpreted (Dan 7:28). Some faces of people in the Old Testament had sad countenances while others had happy countenances (Gen 4:5; 1 Sam 1:18; Neh 2:2-3)
The New Testament describes the countenance of Jesus and His followers. During the transfiguration, the countenance of Jesus was “changed as He prayed” (Luke 9:29). After His resurrection, the countenance or appearance of Jesus was like “lightening, bright and white.” In his vision, John saw the risen Lord and His face (countenance) “was shinning like the sun and midday” (Rev 1:16). A radiant countenance is a theme of Scripture and a trait of holiness.
The Bible describes the face or countenance of several women. In 1 Samuel 1, Hannah’s sad countenance became happy when the priest Eli told her she would bear a child (vv. 8-18). Abigail was described as a woman of good intelligence and beautiful countenance (1 Sam 25:3). King David’s son Absalom named his daughter Tamar after his sister who had been tragically raped by her half-brother Amnon. The countenance of Absalom’s daughter, Tamar, was described as fair and beautiful (2 Sam 14:27). Many other women of the Bible and many godly women today reflect the righteous countenance of the Lord.
If a Christian is created in the image of God, then her countenance should resemble His. The eyes and face should reflect the sincere emotions and godly character of those who love Him. This chapter will highlight the role of eye contact and facial expression in nonverbal communication. Speakers must express thoughts and feelings in their eyes and faces as well as through words.
Eye contact serves several purposes in public speaking. Some believe 75 percent of nonverbal communication is through the eyes. The speaker conveys the sincerity of her heart, the intent of the message, and the intensity of her passion through the eyes. Good eye contact improves the speaker’s confidence, demonstrates security, increases credibility with the audience, projects warmth, builds connection, and communicates value. The audience provides visible feedback to the speaker. Smiles and nods may indicate understanding, while curious expressions or confused looks may imply poor comprehension.
A speaker can control her eye contact and connect with the audience more personally. Keep the eyes open and focused. Wide eyes are more visible in a group setting, and focus allows the speaker to see the eyes and faces of the people. Scan the audience with the eyes and face. Turn the head as well as the eyes to look at someone or some area of the room. Establish eye-to-eye gaze when possible. Connect with one person in the audience at a time. However, try not to stare or move mechanically. Look at all areas of the room and all people. Try to cover all the people and all the room with an eye gaze. Try not to overlook the balcony or extreme sides. Engage in eye contact with the most important people in the room even if they make you a little nervous. Use steady, controlled eye contact. Confidence and persuasion are conveyed with individuals and the audience as a whole with deliberate eye contact. Maintain eye contact with each person or section for several seconds. Complete a thought or sentence before gazing at another person or another area of the room. Avoid looking at the ceiling, toward the floor, or above people’s heads. Roving eyes convey anxiety and disinterest. Look up from any notes, and lock eyes on the audience. Glance down to read a sentence or two then glance up to establish eye contact with the people. Move the eyes about the room in a synchronized pattern. Both eyes should move together across the room and focus together on individuals. Look at the audience while walking to the platform and before walking away. Begin and end the speech by connecting with the audience.
For more tips about the eyes and face, see chapter 22 of our book!
“Warmth is the soul of the voice.” 
In Psalm 149, the psalmist called for God’s people to express praise to Him in words and actions: “Hallelujah! Sing to the Lord a new song…let the exaltation of God be in their mouths.” Exaltation or praise is to be reinforced by a joyful shout. The sound of the voice conveys the emotions and feelings of the heart. A Christian should offer praise to the Lord with her whole self.
Haddon Robinson explained the influence of the voice in his book, Biblical Preaching:
Speech consists of more than words and sentences. The voice conveys ideas and feelings apart from words. We make judgments about a speaker’s physical and emotional state—whether he is frightened, angry, fatigued, sick, happy, confident—based on the tenor of his voice, its loudness, rate, and pitch.
Chapter 21 of our book establishes the importance of nonverbal communication to express emotions and feelings, focusing on three aspects of vocal tone which project meaning: volume, variety, and vibrancy. For the purpose of this blog, we will focus on vibrancy.
Vibrancy refers to the enthusiasm and passion communicated in the tone of a speaker’s voice. An animated and energetic voice adds emotions and feelings to the spoken words. Public speakers should desire vocal vibrancy and lively delivery in speech delivery. Vibrancy in the voice should make the listener want to hear the speech.
Energy is expended physically when speaking. Verbal and nonverbal communication involves energy and effort. Public speakers need to maintain physical as well as mental health to communicate more effectively. Proper nutrition, regular exercise, and adequate rest are essential ingredients of energetic speaking. Fatigue and illness hinders enthusiasm and vibrancy in speaking.
Warmth is an aspect of emotion which can be expressed verbally or nonverbally. Tender feelings can be communicated through choice of words or tone of voice. A softer, lower voice typically conveys warmth. Warmth should be a vocal quality desired by public speakers.
In an etiquette book written in 1942, Margery Wilson suggested that the voice reflects emotions as surely as a mirror reflects an image. Warmth is the “soul” of the voice. Sweetness, generosity, and love of humanity are personal qualities of the inner person that produce warmth in a speaker’s voice. Wilson recommends that people build character and virtues to speak with vocal warmth.
Excitement and eagerness should be experienced and expressed by the speaker. If the speaker does not sound excited about the topic, the audience will not want to listen. When possible, a speaker should select a topic of personal interest. If the assigned topic is less than stimulating, the speaker can express enthusiasm verbally. Vocal vibrancy depends upon energy, warmth, and excitement.
Consider these principles about vocal vibrancy when delivering a speech.
- Determine the presence or absence of vibrancy in your voice.
- Compare your vocal vibrancy to that of other speakers.
- Prepare physically for speaking with proper sleep, nutrition, and exercise.
- Work to soften the tone of your voice to convey warmth.
- Expand your interest to be enthusiastic about the topics for your speeches.
The voice provides insight into the speaker’s emotions and feelings. The vocal characteristics of volume, variety, and vibrancy combine with words and other nonverbal cues to communicate the meaning of the speaker’s message. A simple sentence such as “I have had a good day” can change meaning drastically when the voice is used differently. Soft volume may raise doubt in the listener; loud volume may cause belief in the statement. Vocal variety may keep the interest of the listener; limited variety may lose attention. Vocal vibrancy may convey passion to listeners; flat, monotonous tone sounds unconvincing. Tone of voice is the nonverbal code for expressing emotions and feelings in public speaking.
The sound of the voice conveys the emotions and feelings of the heart.
 Margery Wilson, The Woman You Want to Be: Margery Wilson’s Complete Book of Charm (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1942), 58-59.
 Haddon Robinson, Biblical Preaching (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1980), 202-203.
“Vertical and horizontal listening are necessary for Christian speakers.”
While there is no one perfect speaker in the world, there are many excellent speakers. Much can be learned by listening to and observing a wide range of speakers in a variety of contexts. Insights can be gained from the strengths and weaknesses of public speakers, and ideas can be prayerfully incorporated into one’s own speaking style.
Assessment of the public speaking of others should consider several personal characteristics or traits in addition to skills and abilities. Observe the speaker’s character and integrity; sensitivity and awareness; knowledge and information; and desire and passion. These traits are worthy qualities to emulate.
Awareness and informal observations should become a natural mindset of a speaker. Without pen and paper or objective criteria, make mental notes as others speak. Learn to communicate more effectively through observation and examination as well as practice.
Some general guidelines will provide structure for informal observations. Begin noticing the speaker even before the speech starts. Continue observation during the speech and until the speaker is no longer present. Consider observing these aspects of communication, incorporating them into conscious thought.
Before the speech.Observe the setting and platform before the message begins. Is the platform conducive to comfortable positioning and movement by the speaker? Is the lighting adequate for good visibility? Are the podium and props set up properly? Is the screen visible for slides if used, and will the speaker be able to reference them easily? Will the speaker be positioned physically to connect with audience? While some features of setting and stage are beyond a guest speaker’s control, some adjustments and adaptations can be made to improve the speech.
Notice the speaker’s behavior and mannerisms even before she speaks. How does she interact with people before the session begins? How does she participate in the program as a part of the audience? How does she approach the stage and position herself for speaking? How appropriate is her appearance, clothing, and makeup?
During the speech.While the speaker shares the message, try to focus on the speech content and allow the Lord to communicate His thoughts personally. Also, pay attention to the public speaking skills employed during the delivery. It may be helpful to organize observations within the introduction, body, and conclusion parts of the speech. The speaker and listener should be consciously aware of each distinct part.
Listen carefully to the speaker’s opening comments in the introduction. Did she immediately capture the attention of the audience? Did she begin with a challenging question or interesting illustration? Did she relate to the other people or elements of the program? Did she quickly gain rapport with the audience? Did she stimulate interest in the topic? Did she project energy and enthusiasm? Did she use specific words phrases or movements to bridge from the introduction to the body?
As the body of the speech was delivered, did the speaker transition smoothly from the introduction? Did the speaker present clear relevant points? Did she include appropriate supportive material to strengthen her premises? Did she use nonverbal communication naturally? Did she utilize the sound system and media effectively? Did she adhere to the schedule and allot time equally to all points? Did she move smoothly into the concluding remarks?
Was the conclusion truly the conclusion? Did the speaker pause, alter tone, adjust pace, or move to denote the conclusion? Did she summarize main points or introduce new material? Did she call for response or action? Did she close in a vivid memorable way? Did she verbalize “in conclusion” or “in closing?” Did she have a false conclusion? Did she stop before the audience finished listening?
After the speech. Recall the positives and negatives of the speech as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the speaker. Was the speaker effective? Was she well-prepared and thorough? Was the message relevant to your life? Was the audience responsive? Were the major points memorable? Were personal applications realistic? What were two or three strengths of the speaker? What are one or two weaknesses needing work? What one positive comment would you like to share with the speaker?
Whether a wonderfully delivered or poorly constructed message, much can be learned through stepping back and observing!
Critique rather than criticize personal speeches or the public speaking of others.
Speaking skills can be improved incrementally one speech at a time. Because gratitude and grace are godly qualities to be developed for speech follow-up, expression of appreciation due to others, and personal evaluation of one’s presentation should be considered. Speakers fall short when they do not complete the follow-up process of public speaking.
Immediately after the speech, the public speaker will be strengthened by personal evaluations and follow-up. In this important step of public speaking, a person should not be totally focused on self. Instead, recognize those who worked diligently to make the event happen and acknowledge those who invested time in attendance. Public praise encourages others and strengthens the connections with the speaker. Gratitude may also be expressed later in writing.
Self-examination should also follow the speech. Constructive critique – not destructive criticism – is helpful. The speaker should honestly reflect back on what was said and how it was said. Then energy can be focused on improving weaknesses and continuing strengths in the future.
Criticism and critique are two different words with different attitudes. A dictionary defines criticism as “an act of passing judgment as to the merits of anything (usually involves finding fault).”  Critique is defined as “a serious examination and judgment of something (constructive criticism is always appreciated).” A criticism is typically emotional while a critique is intellectual. A criticism is usually vague and general while a critique is concrete and specific. A criticism is a harsh observation or negative comment; a critique is a thorough review or fair analysis. A criticism finds faults, condemns, and judges; a critique sees possibilities, clarifies, and questions. While a criticism states what is lacking, a critique identifies what is working. Criticizing one’s own speaking or the public speaking of others is not productive. However, critiquing speeches can be very productive.
An important part of personal growth and development is self-evaluation. It is helpful for a speaker to evaluate herself after each speech to learn from the experience. Identifying strengths and weaknesses on a regular basis promotes excellence in speaking. A speaker should also have general goals for sharpening speaking skills.
After each presentation, a speaker should ask herself if she was satisfied with her speech, what went well, and what needs more work. Was she confident as she spoke or, if not, what caused nervousness? The following questions may provide more in-depth self-evaluation:
- Did you accomplish the purpose of the speech?
- Did you adapt to the setting of the speech?
- Did you connect with the audience and receive positive feedback?
- Did you witness response to the speech?
- Did you experience any specific problems?
In addition, it may be helpful to examine each stage of the speech process. The questions below may promote more personal insights. Take time to suggest strategies for areas needing improvement.
- Adequate time in prayer and preparation?
- Accurate analysis of audience and occasion?
- Clear outline and balanced points?
- Thorough development of content and supportive material?
- Adequate preparation of presentation materials (handouts, slides, etc.)?
- Effective speaking notes?
- Confidence in speaking?
- Capture attention with introductory comments?
- Maintain connection with the audience?
- Appropriate appearance in wardrobe, makeup, and hair?
- Adhere to time allotted and pace all parts of the speech?
- Notice mistakes or stumbles?
- Appropriate use of words and language?
- Natural gestures and body language?
- Consistent eye contact and facial expression?
- Clear speech and comfortable rate?
- Appropriate volume and projection?
- Audience connection and response?
- Manage challenging situations?
- New techniques or material for next presentation?
If available, an audio or video recording offers objective feedback. Though sound and image are perceived differently, recordings can offer objective feedback to the speaker. Do you have any tips for self-evaluation?
 “Criticism,” http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Criticism (cited 22 March 2013) American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed. (Houghton Mifflin, 2009).
 “Critique,” http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Critique (cited 22 March 2013) American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed. (Houghton Mifflin, 2009).
”If speaking is like cooking,
then prayer turns the recipe into a meal.”
A Christian speaker has the responsibility of preparation but also has the privilege of prayer. Before, during, and after the speech, the speaker should commit the message to the Lord in prayer. Prayer opens the heart to hear from God and directs the mind to speak to others. Without prayer, a person speaks only words. With prayer, a Christian can speak truth. Pray to speak truth from God each time you speak publicly.
Jesus illustrated in His life the importance of prayer. In John 17, He prayed specifically for Himself and others. He sought God’s guidance with the words of His mouth and the meditations of His heart. His prayer focus can be a pattern for Christians at all times, especially before speaking or teaching.
In the first five verses of John 17, Jesus prays for Himself. He prays specifically to glorify God and expresses a desire to complete the work assigned to Him. Speakers should pray for themselves personally, to glorify God and serve Him through speaking. In the second section of John 17 (vv 6-9), Jesus prays for others. He prays specifically for His disciples to hear from the Lord and be united in their message. Christian speakers should pray that their audiences will hear from the Lord and understand the proclaimed truth. In the last section of John 17 (vv 20-26), Jesus prays for all believers to be one with the Father in taking the gospel to the world.
Speakers should pray for unbelievers listening to respond to the gospel as well as for believers to spread the good news to others. Christian speakers have an example in the prayer of Jesus recorded in John 17:25-26:
The world has not known You.
However, I have known that You,
and these have known that You sent Me.
I made Your name known to them
and will make it known,
so the love You have loved Me with
may be in them and I may be in them.
Prayer is important to life and essential to ministry. As a Christian speaker prepares to speak and stands to deliver, she must commit her words and herself to the Lord. Then, the Holy Spirit will speak through her with power.
A Christian speaker should begin praying about her message from the moment she is invited to speak. Prayer not only helps a speaker know what to say, it keeps the focus on God, not self; it opens eyes to the needs of others; and it calms the spirit with confidence to speak.
In his book, Saying It Well: Touching Others With Your Words, Chuck Swindoll writes: “If preaching is like cooking, then prayer turns the recipe into a meal.” Prayer gives meaning to a speaker’s words. Like a recipe, a message has many ingredients. It is not the individual ingredients, but the blending of all ingredients that gives the dish a satisfying taste. It is prayer that blends together the contents of the speech and the methods of delivery to make a powerful message. A message from the Lord is just not right without prayer.
In general, a speaker should pray daily without ceasing (1 Thess 5:17). Praise to the Lord as well as personal petitions are vital aspects of prayer. Prayer should be focused on the purpose of the speech, occasion of the speech, and content of the speech. Prayer should be for the speaker and for the listeners. At all times, pray for God’s will to be accomplished in the message and messenger, in the hearers and their hearts. Through prayer, a speaker is reminded that God is in control of everything and can be trusted.
E.M. Bounds’ book, Power through Prayer has been called by many people “the greatest book on prayer ever written.” Bounds believed a preacher’s prayerful heart and the Holy Spirit’s anointing gave power to the message. He said, “Prayer, much prayer, is the price of preaching unction. Prayer, much prayer, is the sole condition of keeping the anointing. Without unceasing prayer, the anointing never comes to the preacher. Without perseverance in prayer, the anointing, like over-kept manna, breeds worms.” Christian speakers must be persistent in prayer.
What role does prayer play in your own preparation for speaking?
“The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be felt with the heart.”(Helen Keller)
An effective speaker speaks from her heart and with humor. As she speaks, she must develop an atmosphere of openness and honesty as well as enjoyment. According to Gronbeck et al, the speaking atmosphere is the mind-set or mental attitude that the speaker seeks to create in the audience. The desired atmosphere is based upon the speaking situation, the speech’s purpose, and the listener’s expectations. However, a speaker must be open and transparent to connect with the audience.
Being an open and honest speaker is not always easy because of the uncertainty of the responses from people in the audience. I (Monica) struggled for years with an eating disorder which I kept secret from everyone except the Lord and my parents. As I was healed by the Lord and found absolute deliverance, opportunities for me to share what He was doing in my life presented themselves. My first opportunity was in high school when I was asked to meet with girls, who were struggling with eating disorders, and offer them hope. At times through the years, I have been hesitant to share my personal story with others. However, I have felt the Lord encourage me to share at specific times. When I have shared my personal story with others transparently, women have waited to thank me for my authenticity. Due to my openness, the ladies were open to the Lord for His healing touch! Authenticity from the speaker will always have a positive effect on the audience.
A Christian message from the heart must come from the heart of the Lord and the heart of the speaker. Sincerity and genuineness open the listener’s heart to the speaker. The message is more powerful when the speaker is passionate and earnest. Speaking from the heart reaches the hearts of others.
To speak from the heart, a Christian speaker must first hear from God. Then, she must be concerned for others and willing to share personally. She feels a burden for everyone to hear from the Lord and respond to His gospel of hope. When Jesus spoke, His words from the heart changed the hearts of those who heard Him (Luke 24:32).
I (Rhonda) recently asked a group of women: “Who is the most sincere and transparent speaker you have ever heard and why?” My interest was in the “why” more than the “who.” Of course, the consensus answer was Jesus because He is perfect. Actually, we can learn a lot about openness and sincerity from His sermons and personal encounters. The gospel of Mark alone records “they were all amazed” many times in response to the words of Jesus. The writer of Luke 1:41 reports that Jesus was moved with compassion and then spoke honestly and sincerely. The immediate and unrehearsed responses to my question above underscore the importance of speaking from the heart.
When asked for descriptions of a sincere speaker, this same group’s responses included the following:
- Authentic and endearing
- Down to earth
- Speaks the same to one or one thousand people
- Gentle, loving spirit
- Jesus oozes from her
- Gives glory to God
- Relatable, believable, personal
- Inspiring, convicting, captivating, enthusiastic
- Joyful personality and love for people.
Several comments about sincere speakers were very compelling: “She talks to me, not over my head; she listens without judgment, and speaks without condemning; and she doesn’t hide who she is, she shares warts and all.”
The most important thing about being a public speaker for the Lord is letting your heart come through. How can you infuse more of who He is and more who you are into your speaking opportunities?
…we’ve got answers. Chapter 16 of Talking is a Gift is our “Question and Answer” chapter. We offer answers to specific questions about unique speaking opportunities. While there are three basic types of speeches (informative, persuasive, and entertaining), there are many different variations of talks and settings for speeches. Christian women, especially those in leadership, have many opportunities for speaking to groups, large and small.
On some occasions, a speaker will be asked to give a lengthier talk. Thorough research and preparation are essential to effective major speeches. Significant time must be invested before standing to speak. However, many other public speaking occasions, shorter and less formal, will arise in life and ministry. These also deserve time and effort in preparation by the speaker.
Formal public speeches will actually be rare. Informal types of speaking are frequent. People are asked to make announcements, give instructions, and provide introductions. Christians are often called on to read Scripture or pray aloud. Leaders frequently must speak when they facilitate a discussion session or preside over a meeting. Women must always be prepared to speak, and believers must always be ready to speak a word of witness (1 Pet 3:15). The Lord requires our best in any ministry opportunity. Experience gained in smaller tasks will prepare the Christian for greater ministry.
Here’s an example of a question we address:
Q1. How do I introduce a speaker?
Leaders are often asked to introduce a speaker on a program. Christians women may be asked to introduce a weekly Bible study leader, a workshop or seminar teacher, a keynote conference speaker, or someone giving a testimony. Introductions have purpose and can be effective or ineffective. Always do your best!
A1. First, realize that introductions for program guests serve a purpose.
A2. A guest introduction must be prepared carefully and prayerfully.
A3. A guest introduction needs to be delivered succinctly and sensitively. The length of an introduction should be in proportion to the length of the message. For instance, if a speech is brief (10 to 15 minutes), the introduction should be only one or two minutes. If a speech is longer (30 to 60 minutes), the introduction may be three to five minutes. An introduction must also be appropriate for the setting, occasion, and audience.
Keep these delivery techniques in mind when giving a speech of introduction:
- Connect the speaker and audience. The introduction is the connecting link between the speaker and the listeners. It should bring the two together and break down any barriers.
- Establish credibility. Present enough information to establish the speaker’s credentials, explain why the speaker is gifted on the subject, and give the audience a reason to listen.
- Highlight relevant accomplishments. Do not read an endless list of degrees or credentials. Do not give away the speaker’s message. Point out specifics which relate to the audience.
- Keep comments brief. Do not turn the introduction into a speech of your own. Keep it simple and short. Focus the attention on the speaker who is often a guest.
- Answer questions in the minds of the audience. Who? Where? What? Why? Give basic information about the speaker to answer unspoken questions.
- Speak with confidence. When it is your turn to introduce the speaker, get up quickly and try to speak without notes and without hesitation.
Remember these points when you give an introduction. Be brief. Be interesting. Be positive. And, try not to give away too much. The acrostic K-I-S-S is a good reminder for introductions: Keep It Simple, Sweetie!
More questions? Leave them in the comments below!
There is not one perfect method of delivery like there is not one perfect type of speaker. Every speaker must determine what method of delivery fits the personal style of the speaker as well as the purpose of the speech and the occasion. Each speaker will probably utilize each method of delivery at some time and on specific occasions. Though most speakers have a preferred method of delivery, a versatile public speaker will be aware of the different methods and be able to use each effectively when indicated.
The four primary methods of speech delivery are manuscript, memorized, impromptu, and extemporaneous. Each method requires similar preparation though different delivery. The style of presentation and utilization of notes is different for each. As each method is described below, consider a situation calling for each type of delivery.
The Manuscript Speech is written out word-for-word beforehand and read word-for-word from a script or teleprompter. There are several advantages to this delivery method: words can be carefully selected; timing can be carefully managed; and content can be carefully reviewed. Several disadvantages may develop with this type of delivery method: presentation may sound forced; tone may sound monotonous; vibrancy may sound flat; and eye contact may be limited. Manuscript speeches may be appropriate when precision and accuracy are required such as for media speeches, political messages, or graduation charges as well as when controversial issues are discussed.
Some people who are mischievous may tease or torment those who speak from a manuscript. A playful preacher once took the sermon notebook of his friend who had gone to the bathroom just before he was introduced to speak for a pastors’ conference. The sermon notes were passed across the front row of the auditorium while he was gone. The preacher panicked when he returned and realized his manuscript was missing. If speaking from a manuscript, make sure it is always in your possession.
The Memorized Speech is written out beforehand and memorized word-for-word. It is then quoted from memory by the speaker without notes. A memorized speech allows maximum movement and audience focus. It can be a very powerful form of delivery from the audience perspective. It requires excellent memory skills, thus a lapse in memory is always a risk in this delivery method. Memorization may sound rote or stiff and can develop a sing-song rhythm if not carefully monitored. Only some speakers will be able to speak from memory confidently.
The most effective memorized speeches usually are less formal and more conversational in nature. Predetermined words do not allow for audience feedback or speaker adjustment. Memorization may be indicated in character sketches and for other similar reasons as the manuscript speech. This delivery method should have an integral relationship with the content of the message.
The Impromptu Speech is delivered on the spur of the moment without preparation. Ministry often calls for speaking “off the cuff” or “from the top of the head.” Even when no time is available for preparation, thoughts must be organized and ideas must be presented clearly. Previous preparation and research as well as familiar messages are invaluable resources when asked to speak spontaneously. In 1 Peter 3:14-16, the writer declares:
But even if you should suffer for righteousness, you are blessed. Do not fear what they fear or be disturbed, but honor the Messiah as Lord in your hearts. Always be ready to give a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you. However, do this with gentleness and respect, keeping your conscience clear, so that when you are accused, those who denounce your Christian life will be put to shame.
People in leadership positions must always be prepared to facilitate a meeting, give a report, or share a testimony. Unusual circumstances sometimes call for an impromptu message. A scheduled speaker may become ill or have travel delays requiring a backup speaker. Speakers must also respond to questions and handle debates spontaneously. Lack of preparation should not become habitual. This bad habit can lead to bad speeches or bad lessons. Mission trips also provide numerous occasions for impromptu speeches. Unclear details, cultural differences, changing schedules, and unexpected needs may necessitate speaking without advance notice.
The Extemporaneous Speech is prepared in advance and presented from abbreviated notes. An outline guides the flow of points though exact words are left to the speaker at the moment of delivery. There is a logical progression of thoughts which are freely delivered. Most topics lend themselves to extemporaneous presentation. Thorough preparation and prayerful saturation ensure the material will be present smoothly and understood clearly. Most occasions call for an extemporaneous speech which many public speakers believe to be the preferred method of delivery.
Christine Jahnke describes extemporaneous speaking as “preplanned spontaneity” in her book, The Well-Spoken Woman. Preplanned spontaneity is just what it sounds like: “a balance between being excessively scripted and being unprepared.” It combines competence and casualness. Jahnke uses Elizabeth Dole as an example of a public speaker who used preplanned spontaneity with excellence. At the Republican Convention in 1996 when her husband was nominated for president, Mrs. Dole broke with traditional speech delivery. She moved away from the stationary podium and descended the staircase into the audience in the large convention center. Though less formal and seemingly spontaneous, her words and movements had been carefully rehearsed and choreographed. Thousands of people were intrigued as she walked down the aisles and talked to them warmly. Extemporaneous speech delivery can be strengthened by preplanned spontaneity. As Jahnke points out, “Preplanned spontaneity will help you be ready for anything versus anything goes.” Those public speakers who master extemporaneous delivery will always be ready for anything.
 Jahnke, The Well-Spoken Woman, 155.
 Jahnke, The Well-Spoken Woman, 176.
This week SBC Life published an article that I wrote for them about Talking is a Gift! Talking, as you know, is a Spiritual Gift!
My husband once told me I have three spiritual gifts not listed in the Bible: sleeping, shopping, and talking! Oh my, I do seem like a shallow Christian. How reassuring to discover biblical support for my gift of talking. First Peter 4:10-11 says: Based on the gift each one has received, use it to serve others, as good managers of the varied grace of God. If anyone SPEAKS, it should be as one who SPEAKS God’s words.
Talking IS a spiritual gift! You may have this gift too. A spiritual gift is a special ability given by God for Christian service. Paul the Apostle often taught about spiritual gifts to encourage believers to minister to others. There is one body of Christ but a diversity of gifts including prophecy, service, teaching, and exhorting (Romans 12:6-8). The same God gives at least one of His various gifts to every believer (1 Corinthians 12:4-11). And, He personally gives them for the purpose of training up the saints, building up the body of Christ, and growing up mature believers (Ephesians 4:11-16).
There is a difference between spiritual gifts and natural talents. Talking is simply a talent if used for personal enjoyment or the entertainment of others. If the purpose of talking is ministry to others, it is a gift. Many spiritual gifts included in the Bible need words to effectively minister. A Christian must talk to prophesy, teach, lead, or exhort. Words are necessary for witnessing, service, and mercy. So, TALKING is not only a spiritual gift, it is the natural expression of many other gifts. Now I am feeling very spiritual!
The Bible teaches Christians to discover, develop, and use their spiritual gifts. Through Bible study, prayer, and wise counsel, gifts can be unwrapped. Through discipline and practice, they can be improved. And, with the power of the Holy Spirit, they can proclaim His glory. Romans 12:6-7 gives direction for using God’s grace gifts. No matter the gift, they should be practiced with generosity, diligence, and cheerfulness. According to “Rhonda’s Christian Standard Bible,” that means I must talk a lot, talk with passion, and talk joyfully!
The Bible offers insights on talking as a spiritual gift:
1. Talking is a gift from GOD. God graciously gives life, salvation, and spiritual gifts. Every person is created in the image of God with equal worth and value. Everyone is offered the gift of salvation, male and female, slave and free. And, every believer is given spiritual gifts. Who doesn’t like to receive gifts? God gives them for our enjoyment as well as the benefit of others. No gift is of greater or less value (Ephesians 4:7-8). All are given by God for His purposes. The gift of talking is no more important than other spiritual gifts, it just toots its horn more loudly!
2. Talking is a gift of LOVE. God gives salvation and spiritual gifts because of His love for His children. Spiritual gifts should be used because of love for God and concern for others. Love is a fruit of the Holy Spirit which is often expressed through words (Galatians 5:22-23). Talking either expresses love to others or causes hurt and pain. Do you know people who never have a thought that doesn’t come out of their mouths? A filter is needed to speak the truth in love (Ephesians 4:15). So, think carefully before you speak so that you communicate love and concern.
3. Talking is a gift of GRACE. Salvation and spiritual gifts are given by God’s grace with unmerited favor. We do not earn our gifts, we receive them. Words literally carry grace to the hearers (Ephesians 4:29-30). Ken Hemphill wrote in You Are Gifted: “Spiritual gifts are an individual expression of grace enabling every believer to participate fully in the edification of the church and the advance of the Kingdom.” Talkers can extend grace to others through words of encouragement, and listeners receive the gift of grace through affirmation by others.
4. Talking is a gift for GOD’s GLORY. Whatever Christians do, whether eating, drinking, (or talking), everything should be done to glorify God (1 Corinthians 10:31). I love my dad’s blessing before a meal: “Dear Lord, Help me consume this for Your glory.” When it comes to food, Dad glorifies God enthusiastically. Christians are to use their gifts to glorify God without grumbling or complaining, in everything (the good and the bad), and forever (on earth and for eternity). Words should exalt the Lord, not shine the spotlight on self.
God freely gives life, salvation, and spiritual gifts. Christians should not be afraid to unwrap the gifts God has given them. Then, we are to share His gifts with others. Spiritual gifts, including the gift of talking, are to be used with generosity, diligence, and cheerfulness. I take my spiritual gifts seriously! You should too. So, sleep in . . . shop ’til you drop . . . talk a blue streak. Use your spiritual gifts to lift up and encourage others!
To see the article on SBC Life, visit: http://www.sbclife.net.